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Sonia Collin, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
Takako Inui, Suntory Beer Limited, Japan
Toru Kishimoto, Asahi Breweries Limited, Japan
Paul Matthews, Hopsteiner, USA
Frank Methner, Technical University Berlin, Germany
Filip Van Opstaele, KU Leuven Technology Campus Ghent, Belgium
Nils Rettberg, Versuchs- und Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), Germany
Aurélie Roland, NYSEOS, France
Christina Schönberger, Barth Haas Group, Germany
Tom Shellhammer, Oregon State University, USA
Martin Steinhaus, German Research Center for Food Chemistry, Germany
Kiyoshi Takoi, Sapporo Breweries Limited, Japan
Meet the Speakers
Dr. Sonia Collin
Professeur ordinaire, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
Free and bound polyfunctional thiols and terpenols in dual-purpose hop varieties. First evidence of gluthatione S-conjugates
Polyfunctional thiols contribute to the hop varietal aroma of beers. Cysteine-S-conjugates have been recently identified in hop. As observed in wine, S-glutathione precursors were also suspected. HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS revealed here, for the first time, the occurrence of G-3SHol and G-3S4MPol in hop, at levels well above those reported for their cysteinylated counterparts. G-3SHol emerged as the major adduct. Although 3SHol seems relatively ubiquitous in free, cysteinylated, and glutathionylated forms, G-3S4MPol, never evidenced in other plants up to now, was found only in the Hallertau Blanc variety. Surprisingly, glucosides occurred at lower amounts than free terpenols in all the dual-purpose hop varieties.
In 1988, Sonia Collin received a Ph.D in Chemical Sciences. She started her career as Chercheur Qualifié at the FNRS. Presently, as Professeur ordinaire at the Université catholique de Louvain (Belgium), she is responsible of the Master in Brewing Sciences. She has published more than 100 publications in peer-reviewed journals, mainly on flavor stability, sulfur aroma, pyrazines, hops, and polyphenols (http://www.uclouvain.be/inbr). Every four years, she organizes the De Clerck Chair. The next one in September 2018 will be devoted to: “Late or dry-hopping : the craft breweries paradox”.
Dr. Takako Inui
Specialist, Beer Development Department, Suntory Beer Ltd., Japan
Cultivation conditions of Saaz hops for creating attractive hop-derived aroma in beer
The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of cultivation conditions, especially in root age, harvest time and pruning date on aroma characteristics of beer for Saaz hops from the Czech Republic using quantitative descriptive analysis of beer or hop tea combined with instrumental analyses. Plant age (root age from 1 to 21 years old) had a significant impact on hop acids content, which was higher in the younger hops. Although the total amount of oil was almost the same among the samples, the balance of terpene components were characteristic to the root age of the hops. Harvest maturity, as determined by pruning and picking dates, had a significant impact on the aroma characteristics, in particular the floral, fruity, and citrusy characteristics, which increased for later harvest times and middle pruning dates. Consequently, the hop-derived aroma intensity and profiles for beer brewed with Saaz hops could be effectively controlled by changing the cultivation conditions.
Takako Inui graduated from Kyusyu University. She started her research carrier with Suntory Ltd. in 1989 at the Institute for Fundamental Research and studied human sensory and food science. Since 2002, she has been conducting research at the Institute for Beer Development on the development of brewing technology and flavor science of hops and. She completed her doctorate at University of Shizuoka in 2016.
Dr. Toru Kishimoto
Senior Chief Researcher, Department of Brewing & Flavor Technology, Asahi Breweries, LTD., Japan
Reconstitution of pilsner beer aroma by recombining 76 aroma compounds
The aroma of pilsner beer was investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) analysis and 76 odor-active compounds were identified. After quantitation of the 76 compounds, based on their odor activity values (OAVs) we reconstituted the overall aroma using ethanol/water as the matrix. The reconstitution was completed by recombining the 76 compounds . The quality of characters (hoppy, malty, sulfury, and estery) and total similarity of the reconstituted pilsner beer was evaluated by panelists. The results revealed that the synergistic effects of the compounds at concentrations far below their threshold levels are necessary to reconstitute the pilsner beer aroma.
Dr. Kishimoto graduated from the Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Japan, and joined the R&D Laboratory of Asahi Breweries Ltd. in 1999. He received his Ph.D. from Kyoto University in 2008 for his thesis titled, “Hop-derived odorants contributing to the aroma characteristics of beer.” Presently, he works as Senior Chief Researcher in the Department of Brewing & Flavor Technology, Asahi Breweries, LTD. His research interests include the flavor analysis of beer and hop aroma.
Dr. Paul Matthews
Senior Research Scientist, Hopsteiner, S.S. Steiner, Inc., USA
Genomics-guided breeding in the wild genetic landscape of hops.
Brewers who understand limitations, process and successes of new hop variety development are better able to make crucial decisions regarding suitability and durability of their flagship brand selections. Hops offer a special challenge for crop improvement through traditional breeding strategies because of several biological constraints, such as, (1) male and female mating habit (2) self-incompatibility (3) asexual reproduction (4) large genome size (5) aberrant recombination and (6) limited domestication history. Mature genomics technologies, like whole genome DNA sequences and high-density genetic fingerprinting, have now defined the biological problems in hop breeding genetics, compelled new breeding strategies, and provided tools to solve breeding problems. Examples of recent, cutting-edge discoveries in hop molecular genetics, with practical applications in hop breeding, are explained to help brewers develop expectations and demands for industrial crop improvement programs. A core set of minimum deliverables for new variety acceptance will be re-viewed and novel agronomic trait assurance systems will be pre-viewed.
Paul has 25 years of research experience in academia and industry. Invested in developing genomic strategies for breeding of medicinal crops, Dr. Matthews pursues projects that have potential for significant impact on world health. Paul received his Ph.D. in Molecular, Developmental and Cellular Biology from City University of New York and postdoctoral training from Agronomy and Plant Genetics, University of Minnesota. Paul has specialized in crop improvement; including Vitamin A bio-fortification in maize and rice, biodegradable plastic production in tobacco, and development of molecular breeding in hops.
Dr. Frank Methner
Head of the Department of Brewing and Beverage Technology, Technical University of Berlin, Germany
Influence of new German aroma hop varieties on flavor description
The study confirms that various flavor hop treatments leading to significant differences in the final hop aroma profile of top- and bottom-fermented beers. With regard to an increased and diverse flavor hop impression in the beer a treatment with flavor hops at later stages of the brewing process seems to be very applicable. Projective mapping with ultra-flash profiling offers a fast method for the evaluation of the hop aroma as well as a parallel monitoring of differences and similarities between a set of samples. Furthermore, it is an effective tool that can be integrated easily into any existing sensory panel.
Dr. Frank-Jurgen Methner is head of the Department of Brewing and Beverage Technology at Technical University of Berlin. He graduated at the Technical University Berlin in 1981 and completed his doctoral thesis about “Aroma formation in Berliner Weisse with focus on Ester and Acid formation” in 1987. Working for Bitburger Brewery for almost 18 years in Research and Development and Quality Management he took over the Chair of Brewing and Beverage Technology at TU in 2004. His main focus in research is on flavor stability, hop volatiles, haze stability and filtration. He is a member of ASBC and MBAA.
Dr. Ing. Filip Van Opstaele
KU Leuven, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Technology Campus Ghent, Belgium
Hop and hoppy aroma: Comprehensive characterization of hop essential oils and hoppy aroma of beer
The presentation will review the hop aroma research carried out by our research group over the past years, thereby focusing on the chemical-analytical and sensory characterization of advanced hop oil products and their application in the brewing process. Scientific insights into the complexity of both hop aroma and hoppy aroma, including recently obtained results towards a better understanding of the kettle hoppy aroma of beer, will be highlighted.
Filip Van Opstaele obtained an academic degree in Industrial Engineering in Biochemistry in 1993 from KAHO Sint-Lieven (Ghent, Belgium) and started working at the same institute as scientific researcher. In 2001 he joined the Biochemistry Department at KAHO as assistant scientist at the Laboratory of Enzyme, Fermentation and Brewing Technology (EFBT). In 2011 he obtained the degree of Doctor in Bioscience Engineering (KU Leuven). He is currently principal investigator at EFBT and lectures on chromatography, spectroscopic techniques and analytical chemistry at KU Leuven (Faculty of Engineering Technology, Technology Campus Ghent). His research experience includes hopping technology, hop aroma analysis, flavor (bio)chemistry using mass spectrometric techniques.
Dr. Ing. Nils Rettberg
Head of Research Institute for instrumental beer and beverage analysis, Versuchs- und Lehranstalt für Brauerei in Berlin (VLB), Germany
Instrumental analysis of hop aroma in beer – On the challenges of transforming a research application into a QC tool
In recent years, hop aroma emerged as a key quality characteristic of popular beer styles. Consequently, the instrumental analysis of hop derived odorants in beer has advanced as a must-have analysis technique, which is not only used in upscale research projects but frequently requested for quality control purposes. By this, analysts are facing growing requirements in respect to analysis quality (working range, accuracy, repeatability, long term stability), but also in factors such as costs and analysis time. The paper will summarize relevant achievements, and will give an outlook on current and future challenges related to the instrumental analysis of hop aroma in beer.
Nils (born 1983) is a trained brewer and maltster holding a diploma in Biotechnology with a focus on Brewing Science. During his academic studies, he developed a deep interest in the analysis of molecules that make beer taste either terribly good or horribly stale. Accordingly, Nils performed his doctoral thesis on “Comprehensive analysis of hop secondary metabolites” and worked as a research associate at TU Berlin (Chair of Bioanalytics) and VLB Berlin (Research Institute for Special Analyses). He is currently in charge of the VLB Research Institute for Instrumental Beer and Beverage Analysis.
Dr. Aurélie Roland
NYSEOS, R&D Manager, 53 rue Claude François, 34080 Montpellier, France
How to monitor odorant thiols during wine and beer elaboration?
The 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexylacetate (3MHA) and 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP) have been the most studied thiols in wine over the past twenty years1 and most recently in beer2. Described as key aroma compounds due to their pleasant notes and their very low perception thresholds, their monitoring is a real challenge due to their low abundance (ppt levels) and their high degree of oxidation. This presentation focused on the thiol analysis in alcoholic beverages and on some technical recommendations to monitor their release in final products. A. Roland, R. Schneider, A. Razungles, F. Cavelier, Chem. Rev. 2011, 111, 7355–7679.  J. Gros, T. T. Hang Tran, S. Collin, Cerevisia 2013, 38, 3–14.
Dr. Aurélie Roland graduated from the National School of Chemistry of Montpellier (France) in 2007. She obtained her PhD degree in Food Sciences in 2010 focused on the influence of oxidation mechanisms occurring during must elaboration on the aroma quality of Sauvignon Blanc and Melon B. wines. Since 2011, she is working at Nyseos (Montpellier, France) as R&D manager. Her research focuses on (i) analytical developments based on stable isotope dilution assay for aroma quantification in alcoholic beverages and food matrices and (ii) organic syntheses to build innovative labelled molecules.
Dr. Christina Schönberger
Head of Hops Academy and Technical Sales Support, Barth Haas Group, Germany
History of Hop Aroma Research
For more than 100 years brewing scientists have attempted to unravel the mystery of hop roma in hops and beer. Real pioneers started this journey without the help of sophisticated equipment or tools and for decades until recently they underestimated the complex sensations of sensory perception. Despite many hurdles, none of them lost faith and the scientific work that has been achieved truly must be acknowledged. This talk gives a summary of hop aroma research achievements in the past and an outlook to the future. How close are we to be in the position to explain hop aroma?
Christina graduated at the Technical University Munich-Weihenstephan in 1999 and completed her doctoral thesis about non-volatile taste compounds in lager beers in 2003. After one year with the German Brewers Association she has joined the Barth Haas Group in 2005. Today she is head of the Hops Academy, an educational program devoted to hops for brewers, and head of the Technical Sales Support Team. Her team is part of Barth Innovations, the European think tank of the Barth Haas Group. Christina authors articles about hops and sensory and is currently the past president of the ASBC.
Dr. Thomas Shellhammer
Nor’Wester Professor of Fermentation Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
Controlling dry-hop flavor in beer
Brewers who wish to amplify hop aroma intensity in beer often turn to dry-hopping as a solution. By adding hops to cold beer during or after fermentation, they retain as much aroma as possible. However, this process is not without its challenges, such as controlling hop aroma intensity, accounting for unexpected bitterness uptake from oxidized hop acids, and potentially high beer losses. This talk will examine these challenges and discuss scientific findings that will ultimately aid brewers in controlling dry-hop flavor.
Dr. Shellhammer is the Nor’Wester Endowed Professor of Fermentation Science in the Department of Food Science and Technology at Oregon State University where he leads the brewing science education and research programs. His brewing research investigates hops, beer quality and the origins of hop aroma and flavor in beer. He is a former President of the ASBC, the current President of the District NW MBAA, and serves on the Board of Examiners of the IBD. Dr. Shellhammer received his Ph.D. from the University of California, Davis in 1996.
Dr. Martin Steinhaus
Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Lebensmittelchemie (German Research Center for Food Chemistry), Germany
4-Mercapto-4-menthyl-2-pentanone in hops: Impact of Variety and Provenance
Black currant-like smelling 4-mercapto-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4MMP) is an important hop odorant that can be transferred in aroma-active amounts into beer. Low concentrations, a high chemical reactivity, and a difficult matrix make analysis of 4MMP in hops challenging. We combined a stable isotope dilution assay with the selective enrichment of thiols on mercurated agarose gel and GC×GC-TOFMS analysis to obtain a sensitive and robust analytical method for the quantitation of 4MMP in hops. Application to >50 different hop samples revealed 4MMP concentrations between 0 and >100 µg/kg and allowed an estimation of the impact of variety and provenance on the 4MMP contents.
Martin is the head of a research group at the German Research Center for Food Chemistry, an Institute of the Leibniz Association, located in Freising, Germany. Martin graduated in Food Chemistry from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and received a PhD from the Technical University of Munich for a thesis on odor-active compounds in hops. His basic research interest is the identification of the key aroma compounds in foods with a special focus on sulfur compounds. He has been working with fruits, herbs, and spices, but he is currently also engaged in several research projects on hop aroma compounds.
Dr. Kiyoshi Takoi
Senior Research Brewer, Sapporo Breweries Limited, Japan
Behavior of hop-derived flavor compounds during beer production and their contribution to the varietal aroma of ‘flavor hop’
Until the 1990s, hops had been classified either as aroma hops or bitter hops/high alpha hops. In the 2000s, new types of hops have been bred which impart very characteristic fruity flavors, for example citrus, tropical fruit etc., to finished beers. Now, a group of such characteristic hops are often categorized as ‘flavor hops’. A beer brewed with such a flavor hop variety has very unique ‘varietal aroma’. In this study, we discuss several key flavor compounds, for example monoterpene alcohols and volatile thiols, their behaviors during beer production, and their contribution to the varietal aromas of ‘flavor hop’ varieties.
Kiyoshi Takoi graduated from Tohoku University with an MS in Agricultural Chemistry in 1989 and joined Sapporo Breweries, Ltd., as a biochemist. From 1989 to 2002, he mainly investigated beer foam stability. During 2002-2005, he evaluated the brewing properties of malts and hops using the pilot malting and brewing plants. In 2006, he managed the new product development. During 2007-2008, he investigated hop-derived flavor compounds. At present, he develops the new products as a senior research brewer. He received PhD in Agricultural Chemistry from Tohoku University in 2011 and award for technical achievement from Brewing Society of Japan in 2016.